Monday, December 7, 2009

Diabetic Diet Plan - Rodent Research Blocks Progress in Treating Chronic Disease

A investigate described in final week's Science Daily points to a complaint which has been discouraging me about diabetes research: a approach which investigate relies upon rodent models which have been built upon false assumptions about a tellurian diseases they have been supposed to model.

You can review about a investigate describing severe problems with a rodent indication for Muscular Dystrophy here:

Science Daily: Mice Holding Back Muscular Dystrophy Research?

It explains which ... dual major facilities of a pass DMD [Duchenne muscular dystrophy] gene have been benefaction in many mammals, together with humans, yet have been privately absent in mice as well as rats, calling in to question a make use of of a rodent as a principal indication animal for investigate DMD.This is bad headlines for people who have been waiting for scientists to find treatments for DMD yet this kind of complaint is not limited to investigate upon DMD.

A outrageous volume of "diabetes" investigate is conducted in db/db mice, ob/ob mice, a New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse, as well as Goto-Kakisaki Wistar Rats. A tiny organisation of rarely respected scientists have built their careers around their knowledge of these particular mice as well as rats as well as sent their students out in to a educational world where they have widespread a make use of of these rodent models.

The complaint is which these rodents became models for tellurian Type 2 diabetes since of their phenotype--i.e. symptoms--matched what researchers 25 years ago suspicion was a phenotype of Type 2 tellurian diabetes.

They have been really fat. They turn fat eating tall fat diets. The red blood sugarine of these rodents worsens when they eat fat. Low carb diets have been really deleterious to these rodent models. In short what you have here is a indication of old-fashioned assumptions about Type 2 Diabetes which have not been proven true in humans with a disorder.

Humans with Type 2 diabetes competence be fat or of normal weight. Most turn fat eating tall carbohydrate diets. Human red blood sugars customarily improve when they eat low carb diets.

The reason which a rodent indication does such a poor job matching tellurian experience becomes clear when you demeanour during a genotype of these rodent diabetes models. Their broken genes have been not a broken genes found in humans with Type 2 Diabetes.

The ob/ob mouse, for example, is morbidly portly as have been many humans with Type 2 diabetes. However, a ob/ob rodent is portly since it has a genetic smirch which keeps it from producing leptin. This makes this rodent catastrophically hungry. But it turns out which after 6 years of sport for leptin deficient humans, researchers found a grand sum of 3 tellurian families in a complete world who have a same genetic smirch as a ob mouse. Everyone else upon earth who is really fat has a little other genetic emanate causing their morbid obesity.

You would think this discovery would have put an finish to a make use of of a ob/ob rodent in diabetes compared research, yet you would be wrong. The scientists who have built their careers upon their expertise in using this a singular rodent do not give up easily.

A Google Scholar search for studies conducted after 2005 where ob/ob mice have been used as a indication for diabetes turns up hundreds of studies.

The db/db rodent is an additional renouned rodent indication for diabetes. It is described thus: "Diabetes (db) is an autosomal recessive turn located in a midportion of rodent chromosome 4 which results in surpassing obesity with hyperphagia [compulsive overeating], increasing metabolic efficiency, as well as insulin resistance. The only complaint with this indication is which a genes which have a db/db rodent seem to resemble a diabetic tellurian have been NOT a genes which have been found in diabetic humans.

This is a complaint with all a rodent models of Type 2 diabetes. No a singular questions which these rodents competence have insulin insurgency or which they competence overeat. But over a past decade a thespian drop in price of genetic screening techniques has come up with a prolonged list of a many common genes compared with tellurian diabetes. In European populations a list includes genes similar to TCF7L2, HNF4-a, PTPN, SHIP2, ENPP1, PPARG, FTO, KCNJ11, NOTCh3, WFS1, CDKAL1, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, JAZF1, as well as HHEX. Failure of any of these genes can furnish diabetes, yet a exact phenotype of which diabetes will change since what is broken is different.

People from non-European racial groups have been found to have wholly opposite sets of diabetic genes, similar to a UCP2 polymorphism found in Pima Indians as well as a 3 Calpain-10 gene polymorphisms found compared with diabetes in Mexicans. As a outcome a "natural history" of their "Type 2" diabetes is utterly opposite than which of Europeans as well as they develop opposite patterns of complications than do people of European backgrounds.

"Diabetic" mice as well as rats do not have any of these tellurian genetic flaws yet other, rodenty gene flaws which give them rodent "diabetes." This does not meant it isn't utilitarian to try their physiologies, only which you contingency always keep in thoughts which they have been opposite from those of humans diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes--just as people diagnosed with "Type 2 Diabetes" can talk about dramatically from any other.

The chances which any anticipating in mice competence cranky over as well as request to humans is really slim. When these studies have been reported to a media they should not be reported, as they have been now, as if they practical to humans.

Beyond this issue, though, lies a complaint pinpointed by a Muscular Dystrophy researchers. The rodent is really opposite from a tellurian being, physiologically as well as genetically, in ways which researchers have not probed because, face it, a people who know a many about how to investigate mice have been precisely those whose careers come to a crashing finish if rodent investigate ever goes out of fashion.

We do not know enough, yet, about a genetic differences in between rodents as well as people to know how a genes voiced in a livers of mice talk about from those voiced in humans. Until you do, it is purposeless to investigate what settlement of macronutrient money coming in causes fatty liver in mice. We do not know enough about a many genes concerned in a law of glucose in a pancreas or smarts of mice either. The Muscular Dystrophy investigate discovered which a genes voiced in a smarts of people were significantly opposite from those of mice.

Glucose law in any species involves a formidable harmony of interacting feedback loops involving gene countenance in a brain, liver, pancreas, flesh as well as gut. The chances have been really tall that, since of poignant differences in between tellurian organs as well as rodent organs, a commentary drawn from rodent research--which form a most more poignant part of "what everybody knows about diabetes" in a medical world have led us in to dangerously wrong blind alleys.

The value of a low fat/high carb diet for people with diabetes was supported by measureless amounts of rodent research. Unfortunately, what which investigate proved was which fat is a complaint for rodents whose diabetes is caused by mutations unrelated to those found in humans which disorder metabolic processes utterly opposite from those which start in humans.

It is possible which there have been proteins in humans which have been significantly concerned in a production of tellurian forms of Type 2 diabetes which mice do not have or which they do not make use of a approach humans make use of them. By concentrating so heavily upon rodent research, researchers competence be blank these critical proteins as well as a stroke of a genes which formula for them.

But mice have been cheap, live brief lifespans, as well as can be "sacrificed" without causing massive protests. The students of a strange rodent consultant researchers have grown in to a outrageous grant-gobbling investigate investiture which thrives upon you do rodent research. It isn't going to go divided soon.

Another investigate published just final week shows which an additional confirmed organisation is anticipating to get their share of a remunerative diabetes investigate dollar. Lo as well as behold, they've combined a Fruit Fly Model of Type 1 Diabetes. You can review about it here:

Science Daily: Diabetic Flies: Fruit Fly Model Helps Unravel Genetics of Human Diabetes

As described in a article:"These mutant flies show symptoms which demeanour really similar to tellurian diabetes," explains Dr. Pick. "They have a hallmark characteristic which is elevated red blood sugarine levels. They have been additionally dull as well as crop up to be breaking down their fat hankie to get energy, even while they have been eating -- a situation in which normal animals would be storing fat, not breaking it down." I have friends who have been rarely renowned ripened offspring fly gene researchers as well as I have measureless respect for a work they do, yet they have been you do simple scholarship looking, for example, during a genes which furnish neurons to improved assimilate what a neuron really is.

I am left scratching my conduct to assimilate how a fly which lacks red blood vessels, a liver, or pancreas can be a "model" for tellurian autoimmune diabetes. A fly with tall red blood sugarine is not a fly with "Type 1 Diabetes." And by a same token, a fat fly which eats as well most competence be an interesting fly which competence teach us something new about fly physiology, yet it is not a "Type 2 diabetic" fly.

Diabetes is a set of symptoms constructed as a finish outcome of failures during various points in a formidable organism with its own evolutionary history. It is not a singular condition. It is not caused by a singular failure of a singular gene which can be explored during a turn of simple science.

Until doctors as well as a public assimilate this better, you will go on to be subjected to "medical truths" subsequent wholly from a same kind of rodent investigate which has already set back a treatment of a deceptive pick up of symptoms called "Type 2 Diabetes" for decades.

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